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Citations on Methodology

This list has been compiled by Detmar Straub of the College of Business Administration at Georgia State University. It is his collection of specific references on methodology which he has updated in response to feedback from an ISWorld List solicititation. He is specifically interested in the psychometric rigor of instruments and this list contains many useful references on validity, reliability and related issues. It is current as of October, 1998. He and all of his contributors are to be thanked for this major effort. It contains 281 citations.

While we have no specific search procedure for this list, readers are reminded that they can use the capability of their browsers (e.g. CTRL-F in both Netscape and Internet Explorer) to find specific terms.

Ackoff, R. L., S. K. Gupta, et al. (1962). Scientific Method. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Aiken, L. S. and S. G. West (1991). Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions. Newbury Park, California, Sage Publications.

Alavi, M., P. Carlson, et al. (1989). The Ecology of MIS Research: A Twenty Year Status Review. Tenth International Conference on Information Systems, Boston, MA, The Society for Information System.

Alavi, M. and P. Carlson (1992). " A Review of MIS Research and Disciplinary Development." Journal of Management Information Systems: JMIS8(4 (Spring)): 45-62.

Alreck, P. L. and R. B. Settle (1995). "Planning your survey." American Demographics: 12.

Altheide, D. L. and J. M. Johnson (1994). Criteria for Assessing Interpretive Validity in Qualitative Research. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA: 485-499.

Alwin, D. (1973-74). "Approaches to the Interpretation of Relationships in the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix." Sociological Methodology: 79-105.

Anderson, J. C. and D. W. Gerbing (1982). "Some Methods for Respecifying Measurement Models to Obtain Unidimensional Construct Measurement." Journal of Marketing Research9(4 (November)): 453-460.

Anderson, J. C. and D. W. Gerbing (1988). "Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach." Psychological Bulletin103(3 (Fall)): 441-423.

Anderson, J. C. and D. W. Gerbing (1991). "Predicting the Performance of Measures in a Confirmatory Factor Analysis with a Pretest Assessment of Their Substantive Validities." Journal of Applied Psychology76(5 (October)): 732-740.

Andrews, F. M. (1984). "Construct Validity and Error Components of Survey Measures: A Structural Modeling Approach." Public Opinion Quarterly48(2 (Summer)): 409-442.

Armstrong, J. S. and T. S. Overton (1977). " Estimating Non-response Bias in Mail Surveys." Journal of Marketing Research14(August): 396-402.

Arnold, D. O. (1970). "Dimensional Sampling: An Approach for Studying a Small Number of Cases." American Sociologist5: 147-150.

Ash, R. A. (1982). "Job Elements for Task Clusters: Arguments for Using Multi-Methodological Approaches to Job Analysis and a Demonstration of Their Utility." Public Personnel Management11(1): 80-90.

Babakus, E., C. E. Ferguson, Jr., et al. (1987). "The Sensitivity of Confirmatory Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis to Violations of Measurement Scale and Distributional Assumptions." Journal of Marketing Research24(2 (May)): 222-228.

Babbi, E. and T. C. Wagenaar (1992). Practicing Social Research. Wadsworth, CA.

Babbie, E. R. (1990). Survey Research Methods. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1977). "Structural Equation Models in Experimental Research." Journal of Marketing Research14: 209-236.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1979). The Role of Measurement in Theory Construction and Hypothesis Testing: Toward a Holistic Model. Conceptual and Theoretical Developments in Marketing. O. C. Ferrell, S. W. Brown and C. W. L. Jr. Chicago, Ames: A Holistic Construal." Administrative Science Quarterly27(3): 459-489.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1983). "A Holistic Methodology for Modeling Consumer Response to Innovation." Operations Research31: 128-176.

Bagozzi, R. P. and Y. Yi (1988). "On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models." Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science16(1 (Spring)): 74-94.

Bagozzi, R. P. and Y. Yi (1989). "On the Use of Structural Equation Models in Experimental Designs." Journal of Marketing Research26(August): 271-284.

Bagozzi, R. P. and Y. Yi (1990). "Assessing Method Variance in Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices: The Case of Self-Reported Affect and Perceptions at Work." Journal of Applied Psychology75(5 (October)): 547-560.

Bagozzi, R. P., Y. Yi, et al. (1991). "Assessing Construct Validity in Organizational Research." Administrative Science Quarterly36(3 (September)): 421-458.

Bagozzi, R. P., Y. Yi, et al. (1991). "On the Use of Structural Equation Models in Experimental Designs: Two Extensions." International Journal of Research in Marketing8(2 (June)): 125-140.

Bagozzi, R. P. and Y. Yi (1991). "Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices in Consumer Research." Journal of Consumer Research17(4 (March)): 426-439.

Bailey, J. E. and S. W. Pearson (1983). "Development of a Tool for Measuring and Analyzing Computer User Satisfaction." Management Science29(5): 530-545.

Barley, S. R. (1990). "Images of Imaging: Notes on Doing Longitudinal Field Work." Organization Science1: 220-247.

Baroudi, J. J. and O. W. J. (1989). "The Problem of Statistical Power in MIS Research." MIS Quarterly13(1 (March)): 87-106.

Bearden, W. O., S. Sharma, et al. (1982). "Sample Size Effects on Chi Square and Other Statistics Used in Evaluating Causal Models." Journal of Marketing Research19(4): 425-430.

Belsley, D. A., E. Kuh, et al. (1980). Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Forces of Collinearity. New York, Wiley.

Benbasat, I., D. K. Goldstein, et al. (1987). "The Case Research Strategy in Studies of Information Systems." MIS Quarterly11(3 (September)): 369-388.

Benbasat, I. (1988). Laboratory Experiments in Information Systems Studies With a Focus on Individuals: A Critical Appraisal. Vancouver, B.C., Canada, University of British Columbia.

Benbasat, I., Ed. (1989). Experimental Research Methods. The Information Systems Research Challenge (Harvard Business School Research Colloquium). Boston, MA, Harvard Business School.

Bentler, P. M. and D. G. Bonett (1980). "Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in the Analysis of Covariance Structures." Psychological Bulletin88(3): 588-606.

Bentler, P. M. (1983). "Simultaneous Equation Systems as Moment Structure Models: With an Introduction to Latent Variable Models." Journal of Econometrics22(1/2(Annals Supplement)): 13-42.

Bettman, J. R., N. Capon, et al. (1975). "Multiattribute Measurement Models and Multiattribute Attitude Theory - Test Of Construct Validity." Journal Of Consumer Research1(4): 1-14.

Bhagat, R. S., S. J. McQuaid, et al. (1985). "Total Life Stress: A Multimethod Validation of the Construct and Its Effects on Organizationally Valued Outcomes and Withdrawal Behaviors." Journal of Applied Psychology70(1): 202-214.

Biscomb, V. J. (1986). Detailed Planning Makes Telepolling Effective. Marketing News: 5.

Blalock, H. M. (1969). Theory Construction: From Verbal to Mathematical Formulations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.

Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York, John Wiley and Sons.

Bonoma, T. V. (1985). Case Research in Marketing: Opportunities, Problems, and a Process. Journal of Marketing Research. 22: 199-208.

Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (1976). Field Research Methods: Interviewing, Questionnaires, Participant Observation, Systematic Observation, Unobtrusive Measures. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. M. D. Dunnette. Chicago, Rand McNally: 363-413.

Bourque, L. B. and E. P. Fielder (1995). How to Conduct Self-Administered and Mail Surveys. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Boyle, G. J. (1991). "Does Item Homogeneity Indicate Internal Consistency or Item Redundancy in Psychometric Scales?" Personality and Individual Differences12(March): 291-294.

Brennan, M., D. Esslemont, et al. (1995). "Obtaining Purchase Predicitions via Telephone Interviews." Journal of the Market Research Society37(3): 241-250.

Brewer, J. and A. Hunter (1989). Multimethod Research: A Synthesis of Styles. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications.

Brief, A. P. and J. M. Dukerich (1991). "Theory in Organizational Behavior: Can It Be Useful?" Organizational Behavior13: 327-352.

Brock, J. J. (1986). Phone Interviews Equal in-Person Methodology. Marketing News: 29.

Burnkrant, R. E. and T. J. Page, Jr. (1982). "An Examination of the Convergent, Discriminant, and Predictive Validity of Fishbein's Behavioral Intention Model." Journal of Marketing Research19(4): 550-561.

Calder, B. J., L. W. Phillips, et al. (1981). "Designing Research for Application." Journal of Consumer Research8(2 (September)): 197-201.

Campbell, D. T. and D. W. Fiske (1959). "Convergent and Discriminant Validation by the Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix." Psychological Bulletin56(2 (March)): 81-105.

Campbell, D. T. (1960). "Recommendations for APA Test Standards Regarding Construct, Trait, Discriminant Validity." American Psychologist15(August): 542-553.

Campbell, D. T. (1975). "Degrees of Freedom and the Case Study." Comparative Political Studies8(2 (July)): 178-193.

Cash, J. I., Jr. and P. R. Lawrence, Eds. (1989). Qualitative Research Methods. The Information Systems Research Challenge (Harvard Business School Research Colloquium). Boston, MA, Harvard Business School.

Chau, P. Y. K. (1997). "Reexamining a Model for Evaluating Information Center Success Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach." Decision Sciences28(2 (Spring)): 309-334.

Chin, W. W. (1994). PLS-Graph, University of Calgary.

Chin, W. W. and P. A. Todd (1995). "On the Use, Usefulness, and Ease of Use of Structural Equation Modeling in MIS Research: A Note of Caution." MIS Quarterly19(2 (June)): 237-246.

Chin, W. W. and P. R. Newsted (1995). "The Importance of Specification in Causal Modeling: The Case of End-user Computing Satisfaction." Information Systems Research6(1 (March)): 73-81.

Chin, W. W. (1998). "Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modeling." MIS Quarterly22(1 (March)): vii-xvi.

Church, A. H. (1993). "Estimating the Effect of Incentives on Mail Survey Response Rates: A Meta-analysis." Public Opinion Quarterly57(1 (Spring)): 62-79.

Church, B. K. and A. Schneider (1994). "A Comparison of Internal Control and Audit Judgments Between U.S. and Australian Internal Auditors." Advances in International Accounting6: 249-261.

Churchill, G. A., Jr. (1979). "A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs." Journal of Marketing Research16(1 (February)): 64-73.

Churchill, G. A., Jr. and J. P. Peter (1984). "Research Design Effects on the Reliability of Rating Scales: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Marketing Research21(4 (November)): 360-375.

Cody, R. P. and J. K. Smith (1991). Applied Statistics and the SAS Programming Language. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.

Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, Academic Press.

Conover, W. J. and R. L. Inman (1981). "Rank Transformations as a Bridge between Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics." The American Statistician35(3): 123-129.

Conway, J. M., R. A. Jako, et al. (1995). "A Meta-analysis of Interrater and Internal Consistency Reliability of Selection Interviews." Journal of Applied Psychology80(5 (October)): 565-579.

Cook, T. D. and D. T. Campbell (1979). Quasi Experimentation: Design and Analytical Issues for Field Settings. Chicago, Rand McNally.

Coombs, C. H. (1976). A Theory of Data. Ann Arbor, MI, Mathesis Press.

Cortina, J. M. (1993). " What is Coefficient Alpha? An Examination of Theory and Applications." Journal of Applied Psychology78(1 (February)): 98-104.

Cote, J. A. and M. R. Buckley (1987). "Estimating Trait, Method, and Error Variance: Generalizing Across 70 Construct Validation Studies." Journal of Marketing Research24(3): 315-318.

Crawford, A. (1986). "A Comparison of Participants and Non-Participants from a British General Population Survey of Alcohol Drinking Practices." Journal of the Market Research Society28(3): 291-297.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests." Psychometrika16(September): 297-334.

Cronbach, L. J. (1971). Test Validation. Educational Measurement. R. L. Thorndike. Washington, D.C., American Council on Education: 443-507.

Cronbach, L. J. (1990). Essentials of Psychological Testing. New York, Harper-Row.

Crowne, D. P. and D. Marlowe (1964). The Approval Motive: Studies in Evaluative Dependence. New York, John Wiley & Sons.

Daft, R. L. and A. Y. Lewin (1990). "Can Organization Studies Begin to Break Out of the Normal Science Straitjacket? An Editorial Essay." Organization Science1(1): 1-9.

Dalkey, N. C. and O. Helmer (1963). "An Experimental Application of the Delphi Method the Use of Experts." Management Science9: 458-467.

Dalkey, N. C. (1969). The Delphi Method: An Experimental Study of Group Opinion. Santa Monica, CA, Rand Corporation.

Denzin, N. K. (1989). The Research Act. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.

DePaulo, P. J. and R. Weitzer (1994). "Interactive Phone Technology Delivers Survey Data Quickly." Marketing News28(1): 15.

DeRosia, E. (1991). "Accents Boost Nonresponse to Telephone Interviews." Marketing News25(18): 38,41.

Dickinson, J. R., A. J. Faria, et al. (1994). "Live vs. Automated Telephone Interviewing." Marketing Research6(1): 28-34.

Dickson, G. W., J. A. Senn, et al. (1977). Research in Management Information Systems: The Minnesota Experiments. Management Science. 23: 913-923.

Dickson, J. P. and D. L. Maclachlan (1996). "Fax Surveys: Return Patterns and Comparison with Mail Surveys." Journal of Marketing Research33(1 (February)): 108-113.

Dijkstra, T. (1983). "Some Comments on Maximum Likelihood and Partial Least Squares Methods." Journal of Econometrics22(1/2(Annals Supplement)): 67-90.

Dillman, D. A. (1978). Mail and Telephone Surveys: Total Design Method. New York, John Wiley.

Drasgow, F. and H. E. Miller (1982). "Psychometric and Substantive Issues in Scale Construction and Validation." Journal of Applied Psychology67(3 (June)): 268-279.

Dubin, R. (1976). Theory Building in Applied Areas. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago, Rand McNally College Publishing Co.: 17-26.

Eden, C. (1992). On the Nature of Cognitive Maps. Journal of Management Studies. 29: 261-265.

Eden, C., F. Ackerman, et al. (1992). The Analysis of Cause Maps. Journal of Management Studies. 29: 309-324.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). "Building Theories from Case Study Research." Academy of Management Review14(4): 532-550.

Eisenhart, M. A. and K. R. Howe (1992). Validity in Educational Research. The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education, . M. D. LeCompte, W. L. Millroy and J. Preissle. San Diego, CA, Academic Press: 643-680.

Elbert, N. F. (1979). "Questionnaire Validation by Confirmatory Factor Analysis: An Improvement over Multitrait-Multimethod Matrices." Decision Sciences10(4 (October)): 629-644.

Elrod, R. (1995). Doctoral research methods class discussions in DSC 882 regarding the value of pilot studies, Department of Computer Information Systems, Georgia State University.

Erez, A., M. C. Bloom, et al. (1996). "Using Random Rather than Fixed Effects Models in Meta-analysis: Implications for Situational Specificity and Validity Generalization." Personnel Psychology49(2 (Summer)): 275-306.

Ettema, J. S. (1985). "Explaining Information System Use with System-Monitored vs. Self-Reported Use Measures." Public Opinion Quarterly49: 381-387.

Feuer, D. (1986). "Validity and Reliability: A Very Short Course." Training23(3): 89-90.

Fielding, N. and J. Fielding (1986). Linking Data. Newbury Park, CA, Sage.

Fink, A. (1995). The Survey Handbook. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fink, A. (1995). How to Ask Survey Questions. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fink, A. (1995). How to Design Surveys. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fink, A. (1995). How to Sample in Surveys. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fink, A. (1995). How to Analyze Survey Data. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fink, A. (1995). How to Report on Surveys. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fontana, A. and J. H. Frey (1994). Interviewing: The Art of Science. Handbook of Qualitative Research. N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.

Fornell, C. and F. L. Bookstein (1982). "Two Structural Equation Models: LISREL and PLS Applied to Consumer Exit-Voice Theory." Journal of Marketing Research19(4): 440-452.

Fornell, C. and R. P. Bagozzi (1983). "Issues in the Application of Covariance Structure Analysis: Comments." Journal of Consumer Research9(4): 443-450.

Fowler, F. J. (1988). Survey Research Methods. Beverly Hills: CA, Sage.

Fowler, F. J. (1993). Survey Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications.

Fox, R. J., M. R. Crask, et al. (1989). "Mail Survey Response Rate: A Meta-Analysis of Selected Techniques for Inducing Response." Public Opinion Quarterly52(4 (Winter)): 467-491.

Franke, G. R. (1996). "Basic Principles of Structural Equation Modeling: An Introduction to LISREL and EQS." Journal of Marketing Research33(2): 255-256.

Franz, C. R. and D. Robey (1987). Strategies for Research on Information Systems in Organizations: A Critical Analysis of Research Purpose and Time Frame. Critical Issues in Information Systems Research. R. J. Boland, Jr. and R. A. Hirschheim, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: 205-225.

Freund, J. E. (1992). Mathematical Statistics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.

Frey, J. H. (1989). Survey Research by Telephone. Newbury Park, CA, Sage.

Frey, J. H. and S. M. Oishi (1995). How to Conduct Interviews by Telephone and in Person. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications.

Fromkin, H. L. and S. Streufert (1976). Laboratory Experimentation. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. B. Dunnette. Chicago, Rand McNally College Publishing Company: 415-465.

Galliers, R. D. and F. F. Land (1987). "Choosing Appropriate Information Systems Research Methodologies." Communications of the ACM30(11 (November)): 900-902.

Gerbing, D. W. and J. C. Anderson (1988). "An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimensionality and Its Assessment." Journal of Marketing Research25(May): 186-192.

Glass, G. V. (1978). Integrating Findings: The Meta-analysis of Research. Review of Research in Education. L. Shulman. Ithasca, IL, USA, Peacock. V.

Glass, E., B. McGaw, et al. (1981). Meta-analysis in Social Research. Beverly Hills, CA, USA, Sage.

Gordon, M. E., L. A. Slade, et al. (1986). "The 'Science of the Sophomore' Revisited: From Conjecture to Empiricism." Academy of Management Review11(1): 191-207.

Green, P. E. and J. D. Carroll (1976). Mathematical Tools for Applied Multivariate Analysis. New York, Academic Press.

Greene, M. T. and S. S. Allison (1988). "The Client Assessment Survey: Another Approach to Marketing." Legal Economics14(8): 52-62.

Greene, J. C., V. J. Caracelli, et al. (1989). Toward a Conceptual Framework for Mixed-Method Evaluation Designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. 11: 255-274.

Gregson, T. (1992). "The Advantages of LISREL for Accounting Researchers." Accounting Horizons6(4 (December)): 42-48.

Guion, R. M. (1977). "Content Validity: Three Years of Talk-What's the Action?" Public Personnel Management6(6): 407-414.

Hair, J. F., Jr., R. E. Anderson, et al. (1992). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.

Hall, M. F. (1995). "Patient Satisfaction or Acquiescence? Comparing Mail and Telephone Survey Results." Journal of Health Care Marketing15(1): 54-61.

Hamburg, M. (1977). Statistical Analysis for Decision Making. 2nd Edition. New York, Harcourt, Brace, and Jovanovich.

Hanushek, E. A. and J. E. Jackson (1977). Statistical Methods for Social Scientists. Orlando, FL USA, Academic Press.

Hartley, C., M. Brecht, et al. (1977). "Subjective Time Estimates of Work Tasks By Office Workers." Journal of Occupational Psychology50: 23-36.

Hayduk, L. A. (1987). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL: Essentials and Advances. Baltimore, MD, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hill, F. M. (1993). "(1) Research Methodology and the Management Disciplines: The Need for Heterogeneity." IBAR14(2): 46-56.

Hill, F. M. (1993). "(2) Research Methodology and the Management Disciplines: The Need for Heterogeneity." IBAR14(2): 46-56.

Huck, S. W., W. H. Cormier, et al. (1974). Reading Statistics and Research. New York, Harper & Row.

Hufnagel, E. M. and C. Conca (1994). User Response Data: The Potential for Errors and Biases. Information Systems Research. 5: 48-73.

Hughes, M. A., R. L. Price, et al. (1986). "Linking Theory Construction and Theory Testing: Models with Multiple Indicators of Latent Variables." Academy of Management Review11(1): 128-144.

Hughes, M. A. and D. E. Garrett (1990). " Intercoder Reliability Estimation Approaches in Marketing: A Generalizability Theory Framework for Quantitative Data." Journal of Marketing Research27(2 (May)): 185-195.

Hughes, C. T. and M. L. Gibson (1991). "Students as Surrogates for Managers in Decision-Making Environment: An Experimental Study." Journal of Management Information Systems8(2 (Fall)): 153-166.

Hunt, S. D., R. D. Sparkman, Jr., et al. (1982). "The Pretest in Survey Research: Issues and Preliminary Findings." Journal of Marketing Research19(2): 269-273.

Hunter, J. E., F. L. Schmidt, et al. (1982). Meta-Analysis: Cumulating Research Findings Across Studies. Beverly Hills, CA, USA, Sage.

Hunter, J. E. and F. L. Schmidt (1990). Methods of Meta Analysis. Beverly Hills, CA, USA, Sage.

Insch, G. S., J. E. Moore, et al. (1997). "Content Analysis in Leadership Research: Examples, Procedures, and Suggestions for Future Use." Leadership Quarterly8: 1-25.

Jacques, R. (1992). "Critique and Theory Building: Producing Knowledge "From the Kitchen"." Academy of Management Review17(3 (July)): 582-606.

Jagpal, H. S. (1982). "Multicollinearity in Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables." Journal of Marketing Research19(4): 431-439.

Jarvenpaa, S. L., G. W. Dickson, et al. (1985). "Methodological Issues in Experimental IS Research: Experiences and Recommendations." MIS Quarterly9(2 (June)): 141-156.

Jenkins, A. M. (1985). Research Methodologies and MIS Research. Research Methods in Information Systems. E. Mumford: 103-117.

Jick, T. D. (1979). "Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action." Administrative Science Quarterly24(December): 602-611.

Johns, G. (1981). "Difference Score Measures of Organizational Behavior Variables: A Critique." Organizational Behavior & Human Performance27(3 (June)): 443-463.

Jorgensen, d. L. (1989). Participant Observation: A Methodology for Human Studies. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications.

Jöreskog, K. G. (1974). Analyzing Psychological Data by Structural Analysis of Covariance Matrices. Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology. R. C. Atkinson and et al. San Francisco, CA. 11: 1-56.

Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom (1982). "Recent Developments in Structural Equation Modeling." Journal of Marketing Research19(4): 404-416.

Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom (1983). LISREL: Analysis of Linear Structural RElations by the Method of Maximum Likelihood. Chicago, National Educational Resources.

Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom (1989). LISREL7: A Guide to the Program and Applications. Chicago, SPSS Inc.

Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom (1993). LISREL8: Structural Equation Modeling with SIMPLIS Command Language. Chicago, IL, Scientific Software International.

Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom (1994). LISREL 8.12i and PRELIS 2.12i for Windows. Chicago, Scientific Software International.

Judd, C. M., E. R. Smith, et al. (1991). Research Methods in Social Relations. Orlando, FL, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc.

Kahneman, D. and A. Tversky (1982). The Psychology of Preferences. Scientific American. 246: 160-173.

Kaplan, B. and D. Duchon (1988). "Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Information Systems Research: A Case Study." MIS Quarterly12(4 (December)): 571-586.

Kennedy, M. M. (1979). Generalizing From Single Case Studies. Evaluation Quarterly. 3: 661-678.

Kerin, R. A. and R. A. Peterson (1983). "Scheduling Telephone Interviews." Journal of Advertising Research23(2): 41-47.

Keys, P. (1988). "A Methodology for Methodology Choice." Systems Research5(1): 65-76.

Kirk, J. and M. L. Miller (1986). Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications.

Kohut, A. (1995). Technology in the American Household. Washington, DC, Times-Mirror Center for People and the Press.

Kraemer, K. L., Ed. (1989). Survey Research Methods. The Information Systems Research Challenge (Harvard Business School Research Colloquium). Boston, MA, Harvard Business School.

Krippendorff, K. (1980). Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA, Sage Publications.

Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL, The University of Chicago Press.

Labovitz, S. (1970). "The Assignment of Numbers to Rank Order Categories." American Sociolgical Review35(2): 515-524.

Lacity, M. C. and M. A. Janson (1994). "(1) Understanding Qualitative Data: A Framework of Text Analysis Methods." Journal of Management Information Systems: JMIS11(2 (Fall)): 137-155.

Lacity, M. C. and M. A. Janson (1994). "(2) Understanding Qualitative Data: A Framework of Text Analysis Methods." Journal of Management Information Systems: JMIS11(2 (Fall)): 137-155.

Lavrakas, P. J. (1993). Telephone Survey Methods Sampling, Selection, and Supervision. Newbury Park, CA, Sage.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). "A Quantitative Approach to Content Validity." Personnel Psychology28: 563-575.

Lawther, W. C. (1986). "Content Validation: Conceptual and Methodological Issues." Review of Public Personnel Administration6(3): 37-49.

Lee, A. S. (1989). "A Scientific Methodology for MIS Case Studies." MIS Quarterly14(1 (March)): 33-50.

Long, J. S. (1983). Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Beverley Hills, CA USA, Sage.

Lucas, H. C., Jr. (1991). Methodological Issues in Information Systems Survey Research. The Information Systems Research Challenge: Survey Research Methods. K. L. Kraemer. Boston, MA, Harvard Business School. 3: 273-285.

Lynch, J. G., Jr., B. J. Calder, et al. (1982). "On the External Validity of Experiments in Consumer Research: The Concept of External Validity." Journal of Consumer Research9(3): 225-244.

Lynch, J. G., Jr., B. J. Calder, et al. (1983). "The Role of External Validity in Theoretical Research/Response/Comment." Journal of Consumer Research10(1 (June)): 109-124.

Mansell, G. (1991). "Action Research in Information Systems Development." Journal of Information Systems1: 29-40.

Marsh, H. W. and D. Hocevar (1988). "A New, More Powerful Approach to Multitrait-Multimethod Analyses: Application of Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis." Journal of Applied Psychology73(1 (February)): 107-117.

Maurer, T. J., R. A. Alexander, et al. (1991). "Methodological and Psychometric Issues in Setting Cutoff Scores Using the Angoff Method." Personnel Psychology44(2): 235-262.

Mayes, B. T. and D. C. Ganster (1983). "A Multitrait-Multimethod Matrix Analysis of the PRF and MNQ Need Scales." Journal of Management9(2 (Fall-Winter)): 113-126.

McDaniel, S. W. and P. Verille (1987). "Do Topic Differences Affect Survey Non-Response?" Journal of the Market Research Society29(1): 55-66.

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